June 2, 2008

Numbers and Hyphens

Recently I got a letter from my phone company informing me that my area code will be switching to 10-digit dialing sometime next year. Several times the letter mentioned that we will have to start dialing “10-digits.” It was very consistent—every time the numeral 10 was followed by the noun “digits,” there was a hyphen between them.

Now, I’ve tried to mellow over the last few years and take a more descriptivist stance on a lot of things, but I’m still pretty prescriptivist when it comes to spelling and style. Hyphens have a few different purposes, one of which is to join compound modifiers, and that purpose was not being served here.

Unfortunately, this is one of those things that most people aren’t really taught in school anymore, and even a lot of editors struggle with hyphens. It seems that some people see hyphens between numerals and whatever words follow them and generalize this to mean that there should always be hyphens after numerals.

But this isn’t the case, because as I said before, hyphens serve a purpose. The stress patterns and intonation of “10 digit(s)” are different in “You have to dial 10 digits” and “You have to dial 10-digit numbers,” because one is a compound and the other is not. The hyphen helps indicate this in writing, and if there’s a hyphen when there doesn’t need to be one, the reader may be primed to expect another word, thinking that “10-digits” is a compound that modifies something, only to find that that’s the end of the phrase.

Of course, one may argue that in compounds like this, the noun is always singular (“10-digit dialing,” not “10-digits dialing”), thus preventing any ambiguity or misreading. While technically true, some readers—like me—may still experience a slight mental hiccup when they realize that it’s not a compound but simply a numeral modifying a noun.

The solution is to learn when hyphens are actually needed. Of course, not all style guides agree on all points, but any decent style guide will at least cover the basics. And if all else fails, trust your ear—if you’re saying it like a compound, use a hyphen. If you’re saying it like two separate words, don’t use one. And if you’re writing or editing anything for publication, you really should know this already.

Editing 9 Replies to “Numbers and Hyphens”
Jonathon Owen
Jonathon Owen


9 thoughts on “Numbers and Hyphens

    Author’s gravatar

    Thank you for saying what needed to be said! Now, if you could just add a possessive apostrophe to “Ladies T-shirts” in your delightful store, this former copy editor would unclench her jaw once and for all.

    Author’s gravatar

    Thanks for the comment. Unfortunately, it looks like I have no control over that part—that text comes from Spreadshirt and isn’t editable. Sorry about the jaw.

    Author’s gravatar

    But the “Ladies” in “Ladies T-shirts” is not really a possessive. It’s “T-shirts for ladies” not “T-shirts that belong to ladies”, so no apostrophe is actually required.

    Author’s gravatar

    I’m not so sure I agree with that line of reasoning. If it were true, we’d have “men T-shirts” and “children hospitals,” not “men’s shirts” and “children’s hospitals.” I’d have to look into it a little more to be sure, but I think we use the singular form in noun-noun compounds like that, not the plural.

    Author’s gravatar

    Quick hyphen question:

    “Reading-themed art lined the walls,” or “Reading themed art lined the walls”?

    Author’s gravatar

    Chicago would recommend the former, and I agree. It will prevent readers from parsing it incorrectly.

    Author’s gravatar

    Thanks. That’s how I had it originally, but then I started to question it.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.